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Behavioral and Translational Neuroscience eelke.snoeren@uit.no +4777649215 Tromsø TEO-H5 5.627

Eelke Snoeren


Virgečilgehus

Professor in Biological psychology
Group leader of "Behavioral and translational neuroscience". 

My research:
The ultimate goal of my research is to understand the neurobiological basis of behavior, both in physiological and pathological circumstances. My main interest lies in the behaviors that activate the brain reward system and respond to it. The reward system is a collection of brain structures and neural pathways that are highly involved in feelings of pleasure, reward and motivation. Different types of stimuli have attractive and motivational values (reward) that induce appetitive (approach) and consummatory behavior. Food and sexual partners are examples of ‘natural rewards’ or ‘primary rewards’, because they induce behaviors that are necessary to facilitate the survival of one’s self and offspring. At the same time, they are examples of ‘intrinsic rewards’, rewards that have an unconditioned, inherently pleasurable value.

In my research, I am interested in discovering how the reward system is regulated and how this is reflected in behavior.  The overall goal of my research is to understand how external stimuli can trigger behavioral responses and alter the brain natural reward system for future actions. I am intrigued by the question of how the brain regulates the switch from motivation - to approach - to consummatory behavior. In my research, I study sexual behavior, because this is one of the most natural incentive-driven behaviors that does not occur without an intrinsic state of motivation. Sexual behavior is therefore an ideal behavioral model to study the mechanisms behind natural reward.

Using a combination of traditional behavioral testing, modern manipulation methods, and advanced imaging, my research group is currently working on three different projects.

The first research project (funded by the Norwegian Research Council) investigates the neural mechanisms behind normal and aberrant motivated behaviors. Many brain areas in the so-called reward system are involved in the regulation of these behaviors. In response to sensory input such as smelling attractive food or mate partner, certain brain mechanisms may trigger behaviors to approach the food or sexual partner and start consuming or copulating. Disturbances in the reward system are related to many disorders like addiction, obesity, and obsessive compulsive behavior, in which the reward system is too active, or anhedonia and sexual dysfunctions in which motivation is lacking. Our research uses sexual behavior as a natural incentive-driven behavior to study the motivational system in rats. Because sexual behavior requires an intrinsic state of motivation and a natural extrinsic incentive, the motivational/reward system can be studied in a more ecological way than with other rewards like excess sugar or drugs. This allows us to study both motivation and the transition to actual consummatory behavior in this model for natural reward. The main aim of this project is to study the natural reward system in a health condition, by focusing on the neural regulation of sexual behavior in rats.

The second research line, consisting of two different projects (funded by Helse Nord and MSCA-IF), studies the natural reward system in a pathological condition. The prevalence of obesity worldwide continues to increase dramatically: 39% of adults are now overweight or obese. Excessive consumption of highly palatable sugar and fat laden foods, often referred to as “junk foods”, plays a central role in the development of obesity, possibly by dysregulating the brain reward system. In these projects, we aim to investigate the neurological mechanisms by which excessive junk food consumption adversely affects the reward system. We hypothesize that desensitization of the total reward system will cause overconsumption of all sorts of rewards. The novelty of these projects is that they address this question by not only investigating the effects of junk food consumption on the alterations in sensitivity to conditioned food rewards, but by also studying the neural circuitry regulating responses beyond food rewards, e.g. secondary intrinsic (sexual) or extrinsic (monetary) rewards. This will be achieved with the unique approach of combining human and animal translational research.

The third project (funded by Helse Nord) researches the neurodevelopmental effects of antenatal antidepressant exposure. Several studies in humans describe that antidepressant use during pregnancy can have long-lasting effects on neurobehavioral outcomes in offspring, such as affected social-emotional development, and increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors. In our rat model we can study the behavioral alterations in social-, anxiety-and depressive-like behaviors and molecular changes in the brain in offspring due to antenatal depression, antidepressant treatment, or the combination thereof. In order to investigate the behavioral alterations, we use a seminatural environmental set-up in which rats live in groups for several days and can express all aspects of behavior. Our seminatural environmental approach allows us to study their neurodevelopmental behavioral changes in a social context which is translational to the real life of children.


  • Sylte, Ole Christian; Johansen, Jesper Solheim; Heinla, Indrek; Houwing, Danielle; Olivier, Jocelien D.A.; Heijkoop, Roy; Snoeren, Eelke. Effects of perinatal fluoxetine exposure on novelty-induced social and non-social investigation behaviors in a seminatural environment. Psychopharmacology 2021; Volum 238. ISSN 0033-3158.s 3653 - 3667.s doi: 10.1007/s00213-021-05984-8.
  • Chiacchierini, Giulia; Naneix, Fabien; Peters, Kate Z; Aspergis-Schoute, John; Snoeren, Eelke; McCutcheon, James Edgar. Protein Appetite Drives Macronutrient-Related Differences in Ventral Tegmental Area Neural Activity. Journal of Neuroscience 2021; Volum 41 (23). ISSN 0270-6474.s 50805092 - .s doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3082-20.2021.
  • Huijgens, Patty; Guarraci, Fay; Olivier, Jocelien; Snoeren, Eelke. Male rat sexual behavior: Insights from inter-copulatory intervals. Behavioural Processes 2021. ISSN 0376-6357.s doi: 10.1016/j.beproc.2021.104458.
  • Chu, Xi; Snoeren, Eelke; Södersten, Per; Ågmo, Anders j. Sexual incentive motivation and male and female copulatory behavior in female rats given androgen from postnatal day 20. Physiology and Behavior 2021; Volum 237. ISSN 0031-9384.s doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2021.113460.
  • Heinla, Indrek; Chu, Xi; Ågmo, Anders j; Snoeren, Eelke. Rat ultrasonic vocalizations and novelty-induced social and non-social investigation behavior in a seminatural environment. (sammendrag) Physiology and Behavior 2021; Volum 237. ISSN 0031-9384.s doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2021.113450.
  • Huijgens, Patty; Heijkoop, Roy; Snoeren, Eelke. Silencing and stimulating the medial amygdala impairs ejaculation but not sexual incentive motivation in male rats. Behavioural Brain Research 2021; Volum 405. ISSN 0166-4328.s doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2021.113206.
  • Lalanza, Jaume F; Snoeren, Eelke. The Cafeteria Diet: a standardized protocol and its effects on behavior. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 2020; Volum 122. ISSN 0149-7634.s 92 - 119.s doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.11.003.
  • Heinla, Indrek; Heijkoop, Roy; Houwing, Danielle; Olivier, Jocelien; Snoeren, Eelke. Third-party prosocial behavior in adult female rats is impaired after perinatal fluoxetine exposure. (sammendrag) Physiology and Behavior 2020; Volum 222. ISSN 0031-9384.s doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.112899.
  • Hegstad, Jan; Huijgens, Patty; Houwing, Danielle; Olivier, Jocelien; Heijkoop, Roy; Snoeren, Eelke. Female rat sexual behavior is unaffected by perinatal fluoxetine exposure. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2020; Volum 120. ISSN 0306-4530.s 1 - 14.s doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2020.104796.
  • Huijgens, Patty; Snoeren, Eelke; Meisel, Robert; Mermelstein, Paul. Effects of gonadectomy and dihydrotestosterone on neuronal plasticity in motivation and reward related brain regions in the male rat. Journal of neuroendocrinology 2020. ISSN 0953-8194.s doi: 10.1111/jne.12918.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Female Reproductive Behavior. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences 2019. ISSN 1866-3370.s doi: 10.1007/7854_2018_68.
  • Houwing, Danielle; Heijkoop, Roy; Olivier, Jocelien; Snoeren, Eelke. Perinatal fluoxetine exposure changes social and stress-coping behavior in adult rats housed in a seminatural environment. Neuropharmacology 2019; Volum 151. ISSN 0028-3908.s 84 - 97.s doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.03.037.
  • Le Moene, Olivia; Snoeren, Eelke. Mate Choice could be Random in Female Rats (Rattus norvegicus). Physiology and Behavior 2018; Volum 184. ISSN 0031-9384.s 1 - 5.s doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.10.031.
  • Chu, Xi; Snoeren, Eelke; Ågmo, Anders j. Functions of Vocalization in Sociosexual Behaviors in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Seminatural Environment. Journal of Comparative Psychology 2017; Volum 131 (1). ISSN 0735-7036.s 10 - 18.s doi: 10.1037/com0000051.
  • Ågmo, Anders j; Snoeren, Eelke. A cooperative function for multisensory stimuli in the induction of approach behavior of a potential mate. PLOS ONE 2017; Volum 12 (3). ISSN 1932-6203.s doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174339.
  • Heijkoop, Roy; Huijgens, Patty Thalia; Snoeren, Eelke. Assessment of sexual behavior in rats: the potentials and pitfalls.. Behavioural Brain Research 2017; Volum 352. ISSN 0166-4328.s 70 - 80.s doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2017.10.029.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. The role of adrenoceptors in the central nervous system in male and female rat sexual behavior. European Journal of Pharmacology 2015; Volum 753. ISSN 0014-2999.s 229 - 245.s doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.09.003.
  • Ågmo, Anders j; Snoeren, Eelke. Silent or Vocalizing Rats Copulate in a Similar Manner. PLOS ONE 2015; Volum 10 (12). ISSN 1932-6203.s doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144164.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Antonio-Cabrera, E; Spiteri, Thierry Jean P; Musatov, S; Ogawa, S; Pfaff, DW; Ågmo, Anders j. Role of Oestrogen α Receptors in Sociosexual Behaviour in Female Rats Housed in a Seminatural Environment. Journal of neuroendocrinology 2015; Volum 27 (11). ISSN 0953-8194.s 803 - 818.s doi: 10.1111/jne.12321.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Ågmo, Anders j. The incentive value of males' 50-khz ultrasonic vocalizations for female rats (rattus norvegicus). Journal of Comparative Psychology 2014; Volum 128 (1). ISSN 0735-7036.s 40 - 55.s doi: 10.1037/a0033204.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Veening, JG; Olivier, B; Oosting, RS. Serotonin 1A receptors and sexual behavior in female rats: A review. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 2014; Volum 121. ISSN 0091-3057.s 43 - 52.s doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2013.11.017.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Veening, Jan G.; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald S.. Serotonin 1A receptors and sexual behavior in male rats: A review. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 2014; Volum 121. ISSN 0091-3057.s 102 - 114.s doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2013.11.007.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Helander, Lars Robert; Iversen, Eric Elvebø; Ågmo, Anders j. On the role of individual differences in female odor and ultrasonic vocalizations for male's choice of partner. Physiology and Behavior 2014; Volum 132. ISSN 0031-9384.s 17 - 23.s doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.04.048.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Ågmo, Anders j. The role of odors and ultrasonic vocalizations in female rat (Rattus norvegicus) partner choice. Journal of Comparative Psychology 2014; Volum 128 (4). ISSN 0735-7036.s 367 - 377.s doi: 10.1037/a0036541.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Ågmo, Anders j. Female ultrasonic vocalizations have no incentive value for male rats. Behavioral Neuroscience 2013; Volum 127 (3). ISSN 0735-7044.s 439 - 450.s doi: 10.1037/a0032027.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Lehtimäki, Jyrki; Ågmo, Anders j. Effect of dexmedetomidine on ejaculatory behavior and sexual motivation in intact male rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 2012; Volum 103 (2). ISSN 0091-3057.s 345 - 352.s doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.09.007.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Chan, JSW; de Jong, TR; Waldinger, MD; Olivier, B; Oosting, RS. A New Female Rat Animal Model for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder, Behavioral and Pharmacological Evidence. Journal of Sexual Medicine 2011; Volum 8 (1). ISSN 1743-6095.s 44 - 56.s doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01998.x.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Bovens, A; Refsgaard, LK; Westphal, KGC; Waldinger, MD; Olivier, B; Oosting, RS. Combination of Testosterone and Vardenafil Increases Female Sexual Functioning in Sub-Primed Rats. Journal of Sexual Medicine 2011; Volum 8 (4). ISSN 1743-6095.s 989 - 2001.s doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.02177.x.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Refsgaard, LK; Waldinger, MD; Olivier, B; Oosting, RS. Chronic Paroxetine Treatment Does Not Affect Sexual Behavior in Hormonally Sub-primed Female Rats Despite 5-HT1A Receptor Desensitization. Journal of Sexual Medicine 2011; Volum 8 (4). ISSN 1743-6095.s 976 - 988.s doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.02192.x.
  • Olivier, Berend; Chan, JSW; Snoeren, Eelke; Olivier, Jocelien; Veening, Jan G.; Vinkers, Christiaan; Waldinger, MD; Oosting, Ronald S.. Differences in Sexual Behaviour in Male and Female Rodents: Role of Serotonin. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences 2011; Volum 8. ISSN 1866-3370.s 15 - 36.s doi: 10.1007/7854_2010_116.
  • Veeneman, MM; Boleij, H; Broekhoven, MH; Snoeren, Eelke; Guitart Masip, M; Cousijn, J; Spooren, W; Vanderschuren, LJMJ. Dissociable roles of mGlu5 and dopamine receptors in the rewarding and sensitizing properties of morphine and cocaine. Psychopharmacology 2011; Volum 214 (4). ISSN 0033-3158.s 863 - 876.s doi: 10.1007/s00213-010-2095-1.
  • Chan, JSW; Snoeren, Eelke; Cuppen, E; Waldinger, MD; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald S.. The serotonin transporter plays an important role in male sexual behavior: a study in serotonin transporter knockout rats. Journal of Sexual Medicine 2011; Volum 8 (1). ISSN 1743-6095.s 97 - 108.s doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01961.x..
  • Breuer, ME; Chan, JSW; Oosting, Ronald S.; Groenink, L; Korte, SM; Campbell, U; Hanania, T; Snoeren, Eelke; Waldinger, MD; Olivier, Berend. The triple monoaminergic reuptake inhibitor DOV 216,303 has antidepressant effects in the rat olfactory bulbectomy model and lacks sexual side effects. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2008; Volum 18 (12). ISSN 0924-977X.s 908 - 916.s doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2008.07.011.
  • Chan, JSW; Olivier, Berend; de Jong, TR; Snoeren, Eelke; Kooijman, E; van Hasselt, FN; Limpens, JH; Kas, MJ; Waldinger, MD; Oosting, Ronald S.. Translational research into sexual disorders: pharmacology and genomics. European Journal of Pharmacology 2008; Volum 585 (2-3). ISSN 0014-2999.s 426 - 435.s doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.02.098.
  • Huijgens, Patty; Heijkoop, Roy; Vanderschuren, LJMJ; Lesscher, Heidi; Snoeren, Eelke. The role of the BNST and surrounding areas in the regulation of natural reward consummation. Annual meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society 2022-06-07 - 2022-06-11 2022.
  • Lalanza, Jaume F; Heijkoop, Roy; McCutcheon, James Edgar; Snoeren, Eelke. Behavioral and neural alterations of the reward system by exposure to junk food in rats. Annual meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society 2022-06-07 - 2022-06-11 2022.
  • Heijkoop, Roy; Assadi, Geed; Lalanza, Jaume F; Subias-Gusils, Alex; Álvarez-Monell, Adam; Escorihuela, Rosa M.; Solanas, Montserrat; Snoeren, Eelke. Do different patterns of junk food exposure cause short-term and longterm neural adaptations in the reward system?. Annual meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society 2022-06-07 - 2022-06-11 2022.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Forskerne kommer til Harstad: Tre foredrag på én dag. 2021.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Hurtigmat og jordmangel. 2021.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Hva gjør søppelmat med hjernen vår?. Forskerne kommer! 2021-09-29 - 2021-09-29 2021.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Hva gjør søppelmat med hjernen vår?. Forskerne kommer! 2021-09-29 - 2021-09-29 2021.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Hva gjør søppelmat med hjernen vår?. Forskerne kommer! 2021-09-28 - 2021-09-28 2021.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Hva gjør søppelmat med hjernen vår?. Forskerne kommer! 2021-09-27 - 2021-09-27 2021.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Hva gjør søppelmat med hjernen vår?. Forskerne kommer! 2021-09-24 - 2021-09-24 2021.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Hva gjør søppelmat med hjernen vår?. Forskerne kommer! 2021-09-23 - 2021-09-23 2021.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Hva gjør søppelmat med hjernen vår?. Forskerne kommer! 2021-09-22 - 2021-09-22 2021.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Hva gjør søppelmat med hjernen vår?. Forskerne kommer! 2021-09-22 - 2021-09-22 2021.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Hvorfor hjernen elsker junkfood. (sammendrag) 2021.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. 100 millioner tapt og forskningsmiljø rasert – alt på grunn av et ventilasjonsanlegg. (fulltekst) 2020.
  • Lalanza, Jaume F; Snoeren, Eelke. A standardized protocol for the Cafeteria Diet model. The 12th FENS Forum of Neuroscience 2020-07-11 - 2020-07-15 2020.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Hva slag rolle spiller hjernen i seksuell adferd?. Forskerne kommer! (sammendrag) 2020-09-16 - 2020-09-16 2020.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Hva slag rolle spiller hjernen i seksuell adferd?. Forskerne kommer! (sammendrag) 2020-09-17 - 2020-09-17 2020.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Hva slag rolle spiller hjernen i seksuell adferd?. Forskerne kommer! (sammendrag) 2020-09-18 - 2020-09-18 2020.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Hva slag rolle spiller hjernen i seksuell adferd?. Forskerne kommer! (sammendrag) 2020-09-21 - 2020-09-21 2020.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Hva slag rolle spiller hjernen i seksuell adferd?. Forskerne kommer! (sammendrag) 2020-09-22 - 2020-09-22 2020.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Hva slag rolle spiller hjernen i seksuell adferd?. Forskerne kommer! (sammendrag) 2020-09-23 - 2020-09-23 2020.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Fra isbjørnforskning og lakseluskjemikalier til hjerne og sex på Forskningsdagene. 2020.
  • Huijgens, Patty; Snoeren, Eelke; Meisel, Robert; Mermelstein, Paul. Effects of androgen on spine plasticity in several motivation-related brain regions in the male rat. FENS Forum of Neuroscience 2020-07-11 - 2020-07-15 2020.
  • Huijgens, Patty; Snoeren, Eelke; Meisel, Robert; Mermelstein, Paul. Effects of androgen on spine plasticity in several brain regions in the male rat. NRSN PhD Student Conference 2019-09-25 - 2019-09-27 2019.
  • Serefoglu, EC; Olivier, Berend; Janssen, PKC; De Pretre, S; Snoeren, Eelke. Preface for Marcel Waldinger special issue on premature ejaculation. International journal of impotence research 2019; Volum 31 (5). ISSN 0955-9930.s 307 - 309.s doi: 10.1038/s41443-019-0195-y.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Hegstad, Jan; Houwing, Danielle; Olivier, Jocelien; Heijkoop, Roy. Perinatal SSRI exposure and rat sexual behavior. Meeting of the Society for Social Neuroscience 2019-10-17 - 2019-10-18 2019.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Hegstad, Jan; Houwing, Danielle; Olivier, Jocelien; Heijkoop, Roy. Perinatal SSRI exposure and rat sexual behavior. Annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience 2019-10-19 - 2019-10-23 2019.
  • Heinla, Indrek; Heijkoop, Roy; Houwing, Danielle; Olivier, Jocelien; Snoeren, Eelke. Perinatal SSRI exposure affects prosocial behaviour in adult rats. Conference: Perinatal Origins of Neuropsychiatric Disorders: from Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Perspectives 2019-05-29 - 2019-06-01 2019.
  • Hegstad, Jan; Heijkoop, Roy; Houwing, Danielle; Olivier, Jocelien; Snoeren, Eelke. Perinatal SSRI exposure does not affect female sexual behavior. Nordic Neuroscience meeting 2019-06-12 - 2019-06-14 2019.
  • Heinla, Indrek; Heijkoop, Roy; Houwing, Danielle; Snoeren, Eelke. Perinatal SSRI exposure affects prosocial behavior in adult rats. Nordic Neuroscience meeting 2019-06-12 - 2019-06-14 2019.
  • Huijgens, Patty; Heijkoop, Roy; Vanderschuren, Louk; Lesscher, Heidi; Snoeren, Eelke. Effect of stimulating and silencing the BNST and BNST-VTA projection on sucrose self-administration in rats. Nordic Neuroscience meeting 2019-06-12 - 2019-06-14 2019.
  • Heijkoop, Roy; Houwing, Danielle; Olivier, Jocelien; Snoeren, Eelke. Perinatal SSRI exposure and male rat sexual behavior. Nordic Neuroscience meeting 2019-06-12 - 2019-06-14 2019.
  • Naneix, Fabien; Chiacchierini, Giulia; Peters, Kate; Snoeren, Eelke; McCutcheon, James. Protein appetite drives VTA neural activity. European brain and behaviour society 2019-09-21 - 2019-09-23 2019.
  • Naneix, Fabien; Chiacchierini, Giulia; Peters, Kate; Snoeren, Eelke; McCutcheon, James. Impact of protein appetite on the dopamine mesolimbic system. Society for Neuroscience 2019-10-19 - 2019-10-23 2019.
  • Naneix, Fabien; Chiacchierini, Giulia; Peters, Kate; Snoeren, Eelke; Meyers, Kevin; McCutcheon, James. Dietary protein restriction induces a preference for protein that may involve both rapid sensory input and post-ingestive effects. Benjamin Franklin & Lafayette Seminar 2019-06-16 - 2019-06-21 2019.
  • Huijgens, Patty; Heijkoop, Roy; Vanderschuren, LJMJ; Lesscher, Heidi; Snoeren, Eelke. Involvement of the BNST and its projection to the VTA in motivation for a natural food reward. FENS-Hertie Winter School 2019-01-06 - 2019-01-12 2019.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Firing the brain on sexual behavior. 20th Turkish National Congress of Psychology 2018-11-16 - 2018-11-18 2018.
  • Heinla, Indrek; Heijkoop, Roy; Houwing, Danielle; Snoeren, Eelke. Perinatal SSRI exposure affects (pro)social behaviour in adult rats. FENS Forum of Neuroscience 2018-07-07 - 2018-07-11 2018.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. The effects of perinatal SSRI exposure on behavior during adulthood. Dutch Neuroscience Meeting 2018-06-07 - 2018-06-08 2018.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. The role of medial amygdala projections in male rat sexual motivation and behavior. Dutch Neuroscience Meeting 2018-06-07 - 2018-06-08 2018.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Translational research in premature ejaculation: from animal to human data. World Meeting on Sexual Medicine 2018-02-28 - 2018-03-03 2018.
  • Huijgens, Patty Thalia; Heijkoop, Roy; Snoeren, Eelke. Involvement of glutamatergic medial amygdala neurons in ejaculation in male rats. Annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience 2017-11-11 - 2017-11-15 2017.
  • Huijgens, Patty Thalia; Heijkoop, Roy; Snoeren, Eelke. The role of glutamatergic medial amygdala neurons in male rat sexual behavior.. Nordic Neuroscience 2017 2017-06-07 - 2017-06-09 2017.
  • Huijgens, Patty Thalia; Heijkoop, Roy; Snoeren, Eelke. Glutamatergic medial amygdala neurons are involved in ejaculation but not sexual motivation in male rats. Annual meeting of the Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology 2017-06-11 - 2017-06-14 2017.
  • Houwing, Danielle; Heijkoop, Roy; Olivier, Jocelien; Snoeren, Eelke. Perinatal SSRI exposure affects behavior during adulthood in rats. Annual meeting of the Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology 2017-06-11 - 2017-06-14 2017.
  • Heijkoop, Roy; Houwing, Danielle; Olivier, Jocelien; Snoeren, Eelke. The effects of perinatal SSRI exposure on behavior during adulthood. Annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience 2017-11-11 - 2017-11-15 2017.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Belønning – vår jakt på det som føles godt. 2016.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Heijkoop, Roy. Shining a light on brain function. (fulltekst) UiT Helseblogg 2016.
  • Le Moene, Olivia; Snoeren, Eelke; Chu, Xi; Ågmo, Anders j. Transition from non-estrus to estrus, according to vocalization abilities in ovariectomized, hormone-treated rats housed in a seminatural environment. NRSN 3rd National PhD conference in Neurosciences 2015-09-21 - 2015-09-23 2015.
  • Le Moene, Olivia; Snoeren, Eelke; Chu, Xi; Ågmo, Anders j. Changes in socio-sexual interactions during transition from non-estrus to estrus in devocalized as well as vocalizing hormone-treated, ovariectomized rats housed in a semi-natural environment. Society for Neuroscience 2015-10-21 - 2015-10-21 2015.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Ågmo, Anders j. The incentive value of multisensory stimuli in male rats.. Annual meeting Society for Neuroscience 2015-10-17 - 2015-10-21 2015.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Antonio-Cabrera, Edwards; Langseth-Eide, Benedicte Emilie; Spitera, Thierry; Musatov, Sergei; Ogawa, Sonoko; Pfaff, Donald W.; Ågmo, Anders j. The role of estrogen alpha receptors in sociosexual behavior in female rats housed in a seminatural environment.. Nordic Neuroscience 2015-06-10 - 2015-06-12 2015.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Ågmo, Anders j. No effect of devocalization on sexual interaction in rats. Annual meeting Society for Neuroscience 2014-11-15 - 2014-11-19 2014.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Ågmo, Anders j. No role for male odors and ultrasonic vocalizations in female rat partner choice. Society for Neuroscience 2013-11-09 - 2013-11-13 2013.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. In search of an animal model for central causes of FSD. 15th congress of the European Society for Sexual Medicine 2012-12-06 - 2012-12-08 2012.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Ågmo, Anders j. Comparison of the sexual incentive value of odors and 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations. FENS IBRO summerschool 2012-06-05 - 2012-06-10 2012.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Helander, Lars; Iversen, Eric; Ågmo, Anders j. The role of females’ ultrasonic vocalizations in male partner choice. Society for Neurosciences 2012-10-13 - 2012-10-17 2012.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Song or smell. What makes a rat attractive?. mini-symposium 2012-11-12 - 2012.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Spiteri, Thierry Jean P; Musatov, Sergei; Ogawa, Sonoko; Pfaff, Donald W.; Ågmo, Anders j. Estrogen receptor alpha and attractiveness in female rats in a semi-natural environment. Annual meeting of the Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology 2011-06-23 - 2011-06-25 2011.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Ågmo, Anders j. The incentive value of female 50-kHz vocalizations for male rats. Annual meeting of Society for Neuroscience 2011-11-12 - 2011-11-16 2011.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Refsgaard, LK; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald S.. Chronic paroxetine treatment causes normal paced mating behavior in female rats and 5-HT1A receptor desensitization. Annual meeting of the Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology 2010-07-18 - 2010-07-21 2010.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Refsgaard, LK; Bovens, A; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald S.. Testosterone plus vardenafil treatment increases sexual behavior in female rats. Annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience 2010-11-13 - 2010-11-17 2010.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Chan, JSW; Cuppen, E; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald S.. 5-HT1A receptor desensitization as potential mechanism underlying the lack of sexual dysfunction in female serotonin transporter knockout rats. European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 2009-03-08 - 2009-03-10 2009.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Bovens, A; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald S.. Testosterone treatment in sexually low-performing female rats. Annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience 2009-10-17 - 2009-10-21 2009.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Chan, JSW; Cuppen, E; Waldinger, MD; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, RS. 5-HT1A receptor desensitization in female Serotonin Transporter Knockout Rats; a putative model for FSD. Annual meeting of the Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology 2009-06-24 - 2009-06-27 2009.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout female rats: pharmacology and sexual behaviors. FIGON meeting 2008-10-06 - 2008-10-08 2008.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Chan, JSW; Oosting, Ronald S.; Cuppen, E; Homberg, J; Olivier, Berend. The role of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in male and female sexual behavior: a study with SERT knockout rats. Annual meeting of the Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology 2008-07-07 - 2008-07-10 2008.
  • Snoeren, Eelke; Chan, JSW; de Jong, TR; Oosting, Ronald S.; Olivier, Berend. Novel animal model for Female Sexual Dysfunction. Annual Endo-Neuro-Psycho Meeting 2007-06-05 - 2007-06-08 2007.
  • Snoeren, Eelke. Animal model for Female Sexual Dysfunction. EURON 2007-12-04 - 2007-12-08 2007.
  • Se alle arbeider i CRIStin →

    Publications outside Cristin

    1. Sylte OC, Johansen JS, Heinla I, Houwing DJ, Olivier JDA, Heijkoop R, Snoeren EMS. Effects of Perinatal Fluoxetine Exposure on Novelty-induced Social and Non-Social Investigation Behaviors in a Seminatural Environment. Psychopharmacology. 2021. Dec;238(12):3653-3667.
    2. Huijgens PT, Guarraci FA, Olivier JDA, Snoeren EMS. Male rat sexual behavior: insights from inter-copulatory intervals. Behav Processes. 2021 Sep;190:104458
    3. Chiacchierini G, Naneix F, Peters KZ, Apergis-Schoute J, Snoeren EMS, McCutcheon J. Protein appetite drives macronutrient-related differences in ventral tegmental area neural activity. Journal of Neuroscience. 2021. Jun 9;41(23):5080-5092.
    4. Heinla I, Chu X, Ågmo A, Snoeren EMS. Rat ultrasonic vocalizations and novelty-induced social and non-social investigation behavior in a seminatural environment. Physiology & Behavior. 2021. Aug 1;237:113450.
    5. Chu X, Snoeren EMS, Södersten P, Ågmo A. Sexual incentive motivation and male and female copulatory behavior in female rats given androgen from postnatal day 20. Physiology & behavior. 2021, Aug 1;237:113460.
    6. Huijgens PT, Heijkoop R, Snoeren EMS. Silencing and stimulating the medial amygdala impairs ejaculation but not sexual incentive motivation in male rats. Behavioural Brain Research. 2021, 405, 113206
    7. Huijgens PT, Snoeren EMS, Meisel RL, Mermelstein PG. Effects of gonadectomy and dihydrotestosterone on neuronal plasticity in motivation and reward related brain regions in the male rat. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 2021, 33(1), e12918
    8. Lalanza JF, Snoeren EMS.The cafeteria diet: A standardized protocol and its effects on behavior. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 2021, 122, pp. 92–119
    9. Hegstad J, Huijgens PT, Houwing DJ, Olivier JDA, Heijkoop R, Snoeren EMS. Female rat sexual behavior is unaffected by perinatal fluoxetine exposure. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2020. 120: 104796.
    10. Heinla I, Heijkoop R, Houwing DJ, Olivier JDA, Snoeren EMS. Third-party prosocial behavior in adult female rats is impaired after perinatal fluoxetine exposure. Physiology & Behavior. 2020 Aug,222
    11. Snoeren EMS. Female reproductive behavior. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2019;43:1-44. doi: 10.1007/7854_2018_68.
    12. Houwing DJ, Heijkoop R, Olivier JDA, Snoeren EMS. Perinatal fluoxetine exposure changes social and stress-coping behavior in adult rats housed in a seminatural environment. Neuropharmacology. 2019 Jun, 151:84:97
    13. Le Moëne O, Snoeren EMS. Mate Choice could be Random in Female Rats (Rattus norvegicus). Physiol Behav. 2018 Feb 1;184:1-5
    14. Heijkoop R, Huijgens PT, Snoeren EMS. Assessment of sexual behavior in rats: The potentials and pitfalls. Behav Brain Res. 2018 Oct 15;352:70-80.
    15. Chu X, Snoeren E, Ågmo A. Functions of Vocalization in Sociosexual Behaviors in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Seminatural Environment. Journal of Comparative Psychology. 2017;131(1):10-8.
    16. Ågmo A, Snoeren EM. A cooperative function for multisensory stimuli in the induction of approach behavior of a potential mate. PLoS One. 2017;12(3):e0174339.
    17. Snoeren EM, Antonio-Cabrera E, Spiteri T, Musatov S, Ogawa S, Pfaff DW, et al. Role of Oestrogen alpha Receptors in Sociosexual Behaviour in Female Rats Housed in a Seminatural Environment. J Neuroendocrinol. 2015;27(11):803-18.
    18. Snoeren EM. The role of adrenoceptors in the central nervous system in male and female rat sexual behavior. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;753:229-45.
    19. Ågmo A, Snoeren EM. Silent or Vocalizing Rats Copulate in a Similar Manner. PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0144164.
    20. Snoeren EM, Veening JG, Olivier B, Oosting RS. Serotonin 1A receptors and sexual behavior in male rats: a review. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2014;121:102-14.
    21. Snoeren EM, Veening JG, Olivier B, Oosting RS. Serotonin 1A receptors and sexual behavior in female rats: a review. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2014;121:43-52.
    22. Snoeren EM, Helander LR, Iversen EE, Ågmo A. On the role of individual differences in female odor and ultrasonic vocalizations for male's choice of partner. Physiol Behav. 2014;132:17-23.
    23. Snoeren EM, Ågmo A. The incentive value of males' 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations for female rats (Rattus norvegicus). J Comp Psychol. 2014;128(1):40-55.
    24. Snoeren EM, Agmo A. The role of odors and ultrasonic vocalizations in female rat (Rattus norvegicus) partner choice. J Comp Psychol. 2014;128(4):367-77.
    25. Snoeren EM, Ågmo A. Female ultrasonic vocalizations have no incentive value for male rats. Behav Neurosci. 2013;127(3):439-50.
    26. Snoeren EM, Lehtimaki J, Ågmo A. Effect of dexmedetomidine on ejaculatory behavior and sexual motivation in intact male rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;103(2):345-52.
    27. Snoeren EMS, Chu X, Ågmo A. La interacciόn sexual en un ambiente seminatural: un acercamiento al diseño representativo. In Gozález, M.H., Pérez, M.Á.G., Gutiérrez, C.d.C.A., Martin, A.S. (eds) Aproximaciones al estudio del procesamiento sensorial, emocional y cognoscitivo. Universidad Veracruzana, (2012) pp. 25-64.
    28. Veeneman MM, Boleij H, Broekhoven MH, Snoeren EM, Guitart Masip M, Cousijn J, et al. Dissociable roles of mGlu5 and dopamine receptors in the rewarding and sensitizing properties of morphine and cocaine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;214(4):863-76.
    29. Snoeren EM, Refsgaard LK, Waldinger MD, Olivier B, Oosting RS. Chronic paroxetine treatment does not affect sexual behavior in hormonally sub-primed female rats despite 5-HT(A) receptor desensitization. J Sex Med. 2011;8(4):976-88.
    30. Snoeren EM, Chan JS, de Jong TR, Waldinger MD, Olivier B, Oosting RS. A new female rat animal model for hypoactive sexual desire disorder; behavioral and pharmacological evidence. J Sex Med. 2011;8(1):44-56.
    31. Snoeren EM, Bovens A, Refsgaard LK, Westphal KG, Waldinger MD, Olivier B, et al. Combination of testosterone and vardenafil increases female sexual functioning in sub-primed rats. J Sex Med. 2011;8(4):989-1001.
    32. Olivier B, Chan JS, Snoeren EM, Olivier JD, Veening JG, Vinkers CH, et al. Differences in sexual behaviour in male and female rodents: role of serotonin. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2011;8:15-36.
    33. Chan JS, Snoeren EM, Cuppen E, Waldinger MD, Olivier B, Oosting RS. The serotonin transporter plays an important role in male sexual behavior: a study in serotonin transporter knockout rats. J Sex Med. 2011;8(1):97-108.
    34. Snoeren E, Chan J, Bovens A, Cuppen E, Waldinger M, Olivier B, et al. Serotonin transporter null mutation and sexual behavior in female rats: 5-HT1A receptor desensitization. J Sex Med. 2010;7(7):2424-34.
    35. Chan JS, Olivier B, de Jong TR, Snoeren EM, Kooijman E, van Hasselt FN, et al. Translational research into sexual disorders: pharmacology and genomics. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;585(2-3):426-35.
    36. Breuer ME, Chan JSW, Oosting RS, Groenink L, Korte SM, Campbell U, Schreiber R, Hanania T, Snoeren EM, Waldinger MD and Olivier B. The triple monoaminergic reuptake inhibitor DOV 216,303 has antidepressant effects in the rat olfactory bulbectomy model and lacks sexual side effects. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;18(12):908-16.


    Dutkanberoštumit

    The ultimate goal of my research is to understand the neurobiological basis of behavior, both in physiological and pathological circumstances. My main interest lies in the behaviors that activate the brain reward system and respond to it. The reward system is a collection of brain structures and neural pathways that are highly involved in feelings of pleasure, reward and motivation. Different types of stimuli have attractive and motivational values (reward) that induce appetitive (approach) and consummatory behavior. Food and sexual partners are examples of ‘natural rewards’ or ‘primary rewards’, because they induce behaviors that are necessary to facilitate the survival of one’s self and offspring. At the same time, they are examples of ‘intrinsic rewards’, rewards that have an unconditioned, inherently pleasurable value.

    In my research, I am interested in discovering how the reward system is regulated and how this is reflected in behavior.  The overall goal of my research is to understand how external stimuli can trigger behavioral responses and alter the brain natural reward system for future actions. I am intrigued by the question of how the brain regulates the switch from motivation - to approach - to consummatory behavior. In my research, I study sexual behavior, because this is one of the most natural incentive-driven behaviors that does not occur without an intrinsic state of motivation. Sexual behavior is therefore an ideal behavioral model to study the mechanisms behind natural reward.

    Using a combination of traditional behavioral testing, modern manipulation methods, and advanced imaging, my research group is currently working on three different projects.

    The first research project (funded by the Norwegian Research Council) investigates the neural mechanisms behind normal and aberrant motivated behaviors. Many brain areas in the so-called reward system are involved in the regulation of these behaviors. In response to sensory input such as smelling attractive food or mate partner, certain brain mechanisms may trigger behaviors to approach the food or sexual partner and start consuming or copulating. Disturbances in the reward system are related to many disorders like addiction, obesity, and obsessive compulsive behavior, in which the reward system is too active, or anhedonia and sexual dysfunctions in which motivation is lacking. Our research uses sexual behavior as a natural incentive-driven behavior to study the motivational system in rats. Because sexual behavior requires an intrinsic state of motivation and a natural extrinsic incentive, the motivational/reward system can be studied in a more ecological way than with other rewards like excess sugar or drugs. This allows us to study both motivation and the transition to actual consummatory behavior in this model for natural reward. The main aim of this project is to study the natural reward system in a health condition, by focusing on the neural regulation of sexual behavior in rats.

    The second research line, consisting of two different projects (funded by Helse Nord and MSCA-IF), studies the natural reward system in a pathological condition. The prevalence of obesity worldwide continues to increase dramatically: 39% of adults are now overweight or obese. Excessive consumption of highly palatable sugar and fat laden foods, often referred to as “junk foods”, plays a central role in the development of obesity, possibly by dysregulating the brain reward system. In these projects, we aim to investigate the neurological mechanisms by which excessive junk food consumption adversely affects the reward system. We hypothesize that desensitization of the total reward system will cause overconsumption of all sorts of rewards. The novelty of these projects is that they address this question by not only investigating the effects of junk food consumption on the alterations in sensitivity to conditioned food rewards, but by also studying the neural circuitry regulating responses beyond food rewards, e.g. secondary intrinsic (sexual) or extrinsic (monetary) rewards. This will be achieved with the unique approach of combining human and animal translational research.

    The third project (funded by Helse Nord) researches the neurodevelopmental effects of antenatal antidepressant exposure. Several studies in humans describe that antidepressant use during pregnancy can have long-lasting effects on neurobehavioral outcomes in offspring, such as affected social-emotional development, and increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors. In our rat model we can study the behavioral alterations in social-, anxiety-and depressive-like behaviors and molecular changes in the brain in offspring due to antenatal depression, antidepressant treatment, or the combination thereof. In order to investigate the behavioral alterations, we use a seminatural environmental set-up in which rats live in groups for several days and can express all aspects of behavior. Our seminatural environmental approach allows us to study their neurodevelopmental behavioral changes in a social context which is translational to the real life of children.

    Undervisning

    My research group is always available for graduation projects!

    Bachelor Psychology
    Coordinator and teacher:
    PSY-1004: Biological psychology
    PSY-2032: Critical reading and presenting in psychology

    Teacher:
    PSY-1001: Introduction in psychology
    PSY-2011: Health psychology

    Professional track Psychology
    Teacher:
    PSY-2552: Cognitive neuroscience

    Master Psychology
    Coordinator and teacher:
    PSY-3032: Critical reading, writing and presenting in psychology

    PhD level
    Board member of NRSN (Norwegian Research School in Neuroscience)

     




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